Just run up the column
One of my biggest holdups with some of the puzzles in Sonic Frontiers came from absolutely overthinking things. In the case of puzzle M-009, all you need to do is remember that the Cyloop ability exist.
Locating the Sonic Frontiers M-009 puzzle
You can find this one on Kronos Island, near the center of the map, at the exact location in the image above.
It’s located on a little ridge: you can run up it to the west, where the ground looks shimmery.
Solving the Sonic Frontiers M-009 puzzle
So this one is odd, as it doesn’t even properly trigger as a puzzle, per se: it just expects you to solve it on your own. Fair game!
To do that, you’ll just Cyloop (triangle on PlayStation, Y on Xbox): then run around the little column in the ground. That’ll cause it to raise up, and will grant you access to the puzzle solution: and more of the map. Just wall-run (R2/RT) and you’ll make your way up the column quickly.
There’s a number of these puzzles out there, and getting this one done early will help you spot them.