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I am brazilian. The official language around these parts is portuguese, not english. Sure, many people know other languages, but at daily life we pretty much use only portuguese. It was among the first things I learned, right there with eating by myself and walking and whatnot; I began studying english at 11, almost a decade later (I am 21 now). When I turned 6, my dad gave me an SNES, bundled with Super Mario World.

I played through it in complete ignorance of the minimal plot and the in-game details. I knew Mario, but Bowser was just a nameless evil turtle and Peach was just a nameless princess in a pink dress; I didn't know many things about video game lore back then. Next, I turned my attention to Donkey Kong Country 2. It was a lot like Super Mario World: creatures showed up and I smashed them. Donkey Kong kidnapped? Clueless about that. The games I played at this point required no knowledge except the ability to press games like Super Mario Kart, Super Street Fighter 2, Super Bomberman - not exactly rocket science.

When I was 11, I began studying english (grammar only) a
I am brazilian. The official language around these parts is portuguese, not english. Sure, many people know other languages, but at daily life we pretty much use only portuguese. It was among the first things I learned, right there with eating by myself and walking and whatnot; I began studying english at 11, almost a decade later (I am 21 now). When I turned 6, my dad gave me an SNES, bundled with Super Mario World.

I played through it in complete ignorance of the minimal plot and the in-game details. I knew Mario, but Bowser was just a nameless evil turtle and Peach was just a nameless princess in a pink dress; I didn't know many things about video game lore back then. Next, I turned my attention to Donkey Kong Country 2. It was a lot like Super Mario World: creatures showed up and I smashed them. Donkey Kong kidnapped? Clueless about that. The games I played at this point required no knowledge except the ability to press buttons: games like Super Mario Kart, Super Street Fighter 2, Super Bomberman - not exactly rocket science.

When I was 11, I began studying english (grammar only) at a school. At the same time, I was given a PS1 and 10 games. Platformers, racing games, fighting games, and a little gem that will always be in my heart as one of the greatest games ever: Legend of Mana.

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Legend of Mana taught me that videogame characters don't go running and blasting everything and doing other crazy stuff for no reason; they have backgrounds, emotions, goals, flaws; they interact with each other and belong to a larger, cohesive world. Strangely, the main character is the one we know less about; the NPCs are the ones fully fleshed out. They are many,  they are completely different both in looks and personalities, and they are the ones who get into the weird situations. The main character merely watches in silence and helps when necessary (which is all the time), rarely getting directly involved - he (or she) just sees the troubles to the end and departs when all is well.

But it didn't end here. I haven't been studying english for long, there were things I still didn't understand. My desire to know everything about the quirky characters I had just met made me study english harder and harder. I studied it for two years before quitting the language school, enough time for me to talk, write and read properly (I still make some mistakes but no one is perfect).

As the first game I played with a better understanding of what's going on, I didn't analyze the tales Legend of Mana offered, I just swallowed everything. It was on my second playthrough (a year later) that I began paying attention to the meaning of the events. The relationship between Matilda and Irwin is among the best love stories in any medium: if you take it too far, love can be dangerous and you may destroy yourself - Irwin and Matilda are like Romeo and Juliet, without the sugar-sugar stuff. This is just one of many examples I could have pointed out.

When you become a storyteller, there are so many things you can say, right? Considering the number of games out there with solid characters and interesting events, I had boatloads of stuff to think about, relating to life, society, culture, politics, psychology, philosophy, religion, history and all that. The list of everything I learned is far too big and detailed to describe here. Videogames became an important way for me to look at the world. I never stop learning new stuff, too; right now, I'm studying japanese so I can play Catherine next year, possibly the first game that will treat sex as it should be treated: a completely normal activity that everyone has been doing since ever.

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What did you learn playing videogames?










Potestas puniendi is a latin expression meaning power to punish. Minor spoilers for Chrono Trigger, Professor Layton and the Diabolical Box, Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos and Grim Fandango.

Back in the day, a few weird guys called Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau developed a theory that can be summed up into something like this: "The civilized state's justification is based on the hipothesis that men and women, at the state of nature, would enjoy a complete freedom, with no restrictions to their wishes. However the difficulties would soon appear, due to the clash between unlimited wishes and limited resources. The use of violence defines, then, the relationships at the state of nature. The way to nullify the state of nature is the civilized state. The expropriation by force, as a strong possibility, brings uncertainty to the possession of goods, leading to the creation of said civilized state. In order to obtain security, men and women choose to give the civilized state a little piece of their freedom, so everyone could actually live, with the remaining freedom. The civilized state, then, has to execute this alienated freedom if the group rules are violated". I criticize part of this theory, but the main idea here is: The so-called civilized state theorized by the mentioned trio, and the postmodern state in which we live, should ideally execute the potestas puniendi within the alienated freedom.

Hop aboard the Epoch, Crono will take you to 65.000.000 BC. Remember when Kino took Crono's Gate Key? Crono and Ayla meet Kino at Forest Maze, he confesses it, Ayla bashes Kino's head and asks him if he knows why she's punishing him. Kino says Ayla doesn't like him, Ayla says that's not true and tells Kino stealing is wrong. According to Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau, Ioka Village would be an example of the nature state. However, we can see Ioka Village is pretty
organized: Its denizens coexist without troubles and Ayla is ready to use potestas puniendi as soon as someone tries to ruin the peaceful mood, even if she doesn't wants to (Ayla like Kino BEST!). Punishment is serious business.



There are some guidelines surrounding potestas puniendi: We must consider it only when all other options have been depleted without solving the problem; The punishment and the crime must also be on the same level. At the beginning of Professor Layton and the Diabolical Box, Layton purposefully hides evidence related to a murder from a detective, so he could start his own investigation, often getting ahead of police. Monaco is an upcoming stealth indie game where the player breaks into huge mansions to steal stuff. (You should play Monaco when it comes out, it looks brilliant). Kratos killed a lot of people for selfish reasons throughout the God of War franchise. Imagine the terrorists responsible for the No Russian incident at that airport were arrested. I obviously wouldn't give these four cases the same treatment. If I were a criminal judge, I would say that Layton's case belongs to administrative law, not to criminal law; that Kratos can't be held responsible for his actions because he's insane; that the Monaco thieves steal from incredibly rich people, so no real harm is done and I would make sure they received a small punishment unrelated to prison; that the No Russian guys should be sent to an international court. Do you agree with my solutions? Did you figure out why the guidelines exist? It took criminal law scholars a long time to realize they were needed.

Sadly, these guidelines have strong opponents; potestas puniendi is often the first answer given by governments to crimes and most punishments cause way more damage than the crimes themselves. Traumatic experiences both for the criminal and his family aside, prison deals with two things: freedom and lifetime. Freedom can be returned; lifetime, however, cannot. If someone spends three years at jail, these years will never come back, even when s/he regains his/her freedom. Time is by far one of our most valuable possessions. The fact that prison takes from men and women something no one will never be able to replace, to me, is reason enough for society as a whole to discuss new, lighter punishments, in accordance to the 'proportionality and reasonability' guideline. And I won't even bother writing about the worst nightmare ever that is death penalty.

Instead of cooperating with criminal law, potestas puniendi became its archenemy. Criminal law defends individual guarantees and humanitary law principles. Potestas puniendi was taken from its original place, turned into a tool to (re)create violences and label certain groups as innate criminals/wrongdoers, ignoring everything criminal law strives for.



I don't know if humankind ever experienced a political situation similar to Ioka Village, though I'm more inclined to "no". I do know, however, that the separation between criminal law and potestas puniendi happened at a very early stage of history. Except for a very brief moment with democracies at Greece and Rome, little to no limits to the leaders was the rule for Classical Antiquity and Middle Ages.

Prince Arthas's campaign: The Scourge of Lordaeron, chapter 6: The Culling. Arthas, Uther and Jaina arrive at Stratholme only to see its citizens already Plagued. Arthas wants to kill the whole town so he won't have to admit defeat to the necromancers, disbanding anyone who disagrees; he was so determined to see the problem solved, he would do anything to succeed. Most rulers that lived before the French Revolution were like this: doing whatever they wanted without actually thinking about the people they were supposed to lead, and if their actions ended up being the same actions the people wanted, hey, bonus. Even after the French Revolution, rulers (both all-out ones and behind-the-shadows ones) use any breaches available to work on personal goals.

No detailed historical analysis here, but an overall view might still help. Those who care about the true spirit of criminal law are few (like the Grey Wardens), and even less of them reach high enough positions to try and change things at a bigger picture. Those who want potestas puniendi as a massive, unstoppable beast that forces individuals to stand in its path so it can crush them later, however, outnumber the raindrops at a big storm. (I would say
they outnumber the random stuff at a Katamari level, but that's an understatement. You get the idea). I should also point that most people who want potestas puniendi as said beast were brainwashed accordingly - they don't realize how much they hurt their society as a whole, those around them and even themselves. This means that criminal law is very slow to come up with new mechanisms to fight potestas puniendi; while potestas puniendi is ready to twist anything criminal law designs to its own purposes, and design its own nefarious mechanisms, at lightning speed.



Manny Calavera is a Grim Reaper, a guy whose job is to guide the departed through the Land of The Dead to the Ninth Underworld. He works at the Department of Death. Crossing the Land of The Dead by foot takes four years; if you were evil when alive, you won't get much help and might not make it to the Ninth Underworld. If you weren't that evil, there might be people (well, un-people) willing to help you. Those who were very good when alive can ride the Number 9 train, which takes four days to make the trip, instead of four years. There are, however, some un-people tweaking the system - why can't everything go smoothly just once? I won't say anything else to avoid spoiling the great videogame that is Grim Fandango, but you can piece it together with this paragraph and the above one. If you made it this far, you're a smart person, so I know you can do it.

I wonder what Roger Ebert and Jack Thompson would say about that: videogames showing us what's wrong in our society and how we could fix it! That is, if Ebert and Thompson weren't the prejudiced jackasses they are.

In the end, it comes down to one thing: choosing your side. Will you join criminal law in its righteous quest for a safer society and a better future, or allow yourself to be seized by potestas puniendi and become a tool for interests that aren't your own? Of course, you could choose not to choose and let others deal with the situation. You should not forget, though, that there are people who want you kneeled, so you won't try to mess with their agenda. If
you choose neutrality, you may still be losing a lot, as potestas puniendi must be returned to its first place before it subdues criminal law. Criminal law accomplished a lot of things since it was created, but its struggle will probably last for centuries. Potestas puniendi, as it is, won't just sink into a hole and let criminal law instantly put everything on tracks again; practically no one can change everything all of a sudden. As long as I'm here, I'll help with my two cents: the real changes are made upon small, seemingly insignificant details in our daily life, not epic dreams about freedom, equality and such. We can influence the world around us with actions directed to these details; they might seem irrelevant, but can make a huge difference in the long run. If we don't do anything, potestas puniendi will craft an extremely harsh and unfriendly world to our sons and daughters and grandsons and granddaughters.

We can't let that happen, can we?
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I am currently playing Aquaria, Beyond Good and Evil, Big Bang Mini, BioShock, Braid, Bully, Castlevania: Dawn of Sorrow, Cave Story, Crayon Physics Deluxe, Dead Space, Dementium: The Ward, Disgaea: Hour of Darkness, Donkey Kong Country 3, Earthbound, Final Fantasy IV, Final Fantasy IX, Grand Theft Auto IV, Guitar Hero: Metallica, Henry Hatsworth in the Puzzling Adventure, Knights in the Nightmare, Maestro! Jump in Music, Mario Kart DS, Mirrorís Edge, Nervous Brickdown, Okami, Overlord: Minions, Plants VS Zombies, Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney, Professor Layton and the Curious Village, Psychonauts, Puzzle Quest: Challenge of the Warlords, Ratchet and Clank, Red Faction, Resident Evil 4, RunMan: Race Around the World, Scribblenauts, Shadow of the Colossus, Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3, Shin Megami Tensei: Devil Survivor, The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past, Trauma Center: Under the Knife, Valkyria Chronicles, Valkyrie Profile, VVVVVV and World of Goo. I just bought Demonís Souls the other day, but I havenít started it yet. Iím waiting for God of War III, Final Fantasy XIII, 3D Dot Game Heroes, Super Street Fighter IV, Heavy Rain, ModNation Racers, Okamiden, Ghost Trick, AGAIN, Pokemon SoulSilver, Ninokuni, Shin Megami Tensei: Strange Journey, Dementium II, Dragon Quest IX, Super Meat Boy, Closure, Rocketbirds: Revolution!, Insanely Twisted Shadow Planet, Melolune, Joe Danger, Limbo, Owlboy, Shank and Vessel.

In other words, I am hopeless.

When I finished writing the above list and looked at it, I felt strange, scared, and amazed. How could I let the situation get to this point? Why didn't I stop before it was too late? There are many reasons. One of them is Destructoid, because it keeps showing me these awesome games that will be released sometime in the future, and I put them on my radar ( I came to know indie games through Destructoid, and some games up there were chosen because of that ď50 best games of the decadeĒ list. Not to mention the wonderful job the staff does posting info about new, upcoming games, and sometimes revisiting classics. Destructoid is mai waifu). I also have some bad habits: I often play new games to see if they're good for half an hour, and afterwards I decide whether to continue or not. Most of the games I mentioned fall under this category. There is a problem though: normally, after I decide a game is good enough to be played, I put it on my PC/shelf/DS bag only to leave it there and do other things (sometimes I play older games, sometimes it's really other things). That's not all: even knowing I have too many games in my hands, I still want to pick more. Maybe I'm unable to stop because I love videogames way too much. I also replay games sometimes and - OH MY GOD WHY DO I REPLAY GAMES WHEN I ALREADY HAVE SO MUCH TO DO Ė I have other activities as well. I study japanese by myself, I study law (I plan to be a judge in the future), I study french, I practice yoga, I waste time digging good movies, books, recipes and music (videogame is not all), I study Magic: The Gathering (it is one of the most deep and complex games in the world, if I want to be good at it I'll have to work hard), I play tabletop RPG every weekend, I have swimming lessons, and I'm thinking of studying music to be more than a listener, among other things. There's also my family, my girlfriend and my friends.



Managing my time to deal with all those things is tough, but not impossible, so I keep going. Some people say being a jack of all trades and master of none is a bad thing, but I disagree completely. I'd rather try a bit of everything than focus in a single pastime and ignore the rest. If I chose one of the things I like and dumped the others, I would be doing a disservice to myself. Sure, I have a hard time finishing all the games I start, but at least I'm entirely capable of doing it Ė it just takes more time.For example, my SNES and PS1 backlogs are almost finished, with 2 games on the SNES and 3 on the PS1. I also finished a bunch of indie games lately. I lied in the title of this post. My expertise isn't leaving games unfinished. It is finishing them at a slower pace, without harming my many other hobbies. Even with all these things I do, It's still possible to enjoy them all in a consistent way. It certainly is harsh, but it pays off.
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